Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
|12 Months Ended|
Dec. 31, 2021
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]|
|Summary of Significant Accounting Policies||Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Basis of Presentation
The accompanying consolidated financial statements are presented for the following periods:
•as of December 31, 2021 and the year ended December 31, 2021 (the “Successor 2021 Period”), which includes the results of Adcole, DSS, MIS, Roccor and LoadPath from the beginning of the period as well as 2021 acquisitions Oakman, DPSS and Techshot from their respective acquisition dates.
•as of December 31, 2020 and the period from February 10, 2020 (inception) to December 31, 2020 (the “Successor 2020 Period”), which includes the results of Adcole, DSS, MIS, Roccor and LoadPath from from their respective acquisition dates.
•the period from January 1, 2020 to June 21, 2020 (the “Predecessor 2020 Period”), which only includes the results of MIS.
MIS was identified as the Predecessor through an analysis of various factors, including the size, financial characteristics, ongoing management, and order in which the acquired entities were acquired.
The accompanying consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with United States Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (“U.S. GAAP”). All intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities, disclosures of contingent liabilities as of the date of the financial statements, and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting periods.
Management has prepared the estimates using the most current and best available information that are considered reasonable under the circumstances. However, actual results could differ materially from those estimates. Accounting policies subject to estimates include, but are not limited to, valuation of goodwill and intangible assets, contingent consideration, revenue recognition, income taxes, and warrant liabilities.
The Company utilizes the acquisition method of accounting in Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) 805, Business Combinations (“ASC 805”), for all transactions and events in which it obtains control over one or more other businesses (even if less than 100% ownership is acquired), to recognize the fair value of all assets acquired and liabilities assumed and to establish the acquisition date fair value as of the measurement date.
While the Company uses its best estimates and assumptions as part of the purchase price allocation process to accurately value assets acquired and liabilities assumed at the business combination date, the estimates and assumptions are inherently uncertain and subject to refinement. As a result, during the measurement period, which may be up to one year from the business combination date, the Company records adjustments to the assets acquired and liabilities assumed, with the corresponding offset to goodwill. For changes in the valuation of intangible assets between the preliminary and final purchase price allocation, the related amortization is adjusted in the period it occurs. Subsequent to the measurement period, any adjustment to assets acquired or liabilities assumed is included in operating results in the period in which the adjustment is identified. Transaction costs that are incurred in connection with a business combination, other than costs associated with the issuance of debt or equity securities, are expensed as incurred.
Contingent consideration is classified as a liability or as equity on the basis of the definitions of a financial liability and an equity instrument; contingent consideration payable in cash is classified as a liability. The Company recognizes the fair value of any contingent consideration that is transferred to the seller in a business combination on the date at which control of the acquiree is obtained. Contingent consideration payments related to acquisitions are measured at fair value each reporting period using Level 3 unobservable inputs (Level 3). Any changes in the fair value of these contingent consideration payments are included in operating income in the consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive income (loss).
Based on the specific analysis of its contracts, the Company has determined that its contracts are subject to revenue recognition in accordance with ASC 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (“ASC 606”). Recognition under the ASC 606 five-step model involves (i) identification of the contract, (ii) identification of performance obligations in the contract, (iii) determination of the transaction price, (iv) allocation of the transaction price to the previously identified performance obligations, and (v) revenue recognition as the performance obligations are satisfied.
During step one of the five step model, the Company considers whether contracts should be combined or separated, and based on this assessment, the Company combines closely related contracts when all the applicable criteria are met. The combination of two or more contracts requires judgment in determining whether the intent of entering into the contracts was effectively to enter into a single contract, which should be combined to reflect an overall profit rate. Similarly, the Company may separate an arrangement, which may consist of a single contract or group of contracts, with varying rates of profitability, only if the applicable criteria are met. Judgment is involved in determining whether a group of contracts may be combined or separated based on how the arrangement and the related performance criteria were negotiated. The conclusion to combine a group of contracts or separate a contract could change the amount of revenue and gross profit recorded in a given period.
A performance obligation is a promise in a contract to transfer a distinct good or service to the customer. A contract’s transaction price is allocated to each distinct performance obligation and recognized as revenue when the performance obligation is satisfied. The Company’s contracts with customers generally do not include a right of return relative to delivered products. In certain cases, contracts are modified to account for changes in the contract specifications or requirements. In most instances, contract modifications are accounted for as part of the existing contract. Certain contracts with customers have options for the customer to acquire additional goods or services. In most cases, the pricing of these options are reflective of the standalone selling price of the good or service. These options do not provide the customer with a material right and are accounted for only when the customer exercises the option to purchase the additional goods or services. If the option on the customer contract was not indicative of the standalone selling price of the good or service, the material right would be accounted for as a separate performance obligation.
The Company’s revenues are derived from the design and sales of components for spacecraft and satellites and the performance of engineering, modeling and simulation services related to spacecraft design and mission execution. Each promised good or service within a contract is accounted for separately under the guidance of ASC 606, if they are distinct. Promised goods or services not meeting the criteria for being a distinct performance obligation are bundled into a single performance obligation with other goods or services that together meet the criteria for being distinct. The appropriate allocation of the transaction price and recognition of revenue is then applied for the bundled performance obligation. The Company has concluded that its service contracts generally contain a single performance obligation given the interrelated nature of the activities which are significantly customized and not distinct within the context of the contract.
Once the Company identifies the performance obligations, the Company determines the transaction price, which includes estimating the amount of variable consideration to be included in the transaction price, if any. The Company’s contracts generally do not contain penalties, credits, price concessions, or other types of potential variable consideration. Prices are fixed at contract inception and are not contingent on performance or any other criteria.
The Company engages in long-term contracts for production and service activities and recognizes revenue for performance obligations over time. These long-term contracts involve the design, development, manufacture, or modification of components for spacecraft and satellites. Revenue is recognized over time (versus point in time recognition), as the Company’s performance creates an asset with no alternative use to the Company and the Company has an enforceable right to payment for performance completed to date, and the customer receives the benefit as the Company builds the asset. The Company considers the nature of these contracts and the types of products and services provided when determining the proper accounting for a particular contract. These contracts include both fixed-price and cost reimbursable contracts. The Company’s cost reimbursable contracts typically include cost-plus fixed fee and time and material (“T&M”) contracts.
For long-term contracts, the Company typically recognizes revenue using the input method, using a cost-to-cost measure of progress. The Company believes that this method represents the most faithful depiction of the Company’s performance because it directly measures value transferred to the customer. Contract estimates are based on various assumptions to project the outcome of future events that may span several years. These assumptions include, but are not limited to, the amount of time to complete the contract, including the assessment of the nature and complexity of the work to be performed; the cost and availability of materials; the availability of subcontractor services and materials; and the availability and timing of funding from the customer. The Company bears the risk of changes in estimates to complete on a fixed-price contract, which may cause profit levels to vary from period to period. For cost reimbursable contracts, the Company is reimbursed periodically for allowable costs and is paid a portion of the fee based on contract progress. In the limited instances where the Company enters into T&M contracts, revenue recognized reflects the number of direct labor hours expended in the performance of a contract multiplied by the contract billing rate, as well as reimbursement of other direct billable costs. For T&M contracts, the Company recognizes revenue in the amount for which the Company has a right to invoice the customer based on the control transferred to the customer. For over time contracts, the Company recognizes anticipated contract losses as soon as they become known and estimable.
Accounting for long-term contracts requires significant judgment relative to estimating total contract revenues and costs, in particular, assumptions relative to the amount of time to complete the contract, including the assessment of the nature and complexity of the work to be performed. The Company’s estimates are based upon the professional knowledge and experience of its engineers, program managers and other personnel, who review each long-term contract monthly to assess the contract’s schedule, performance, technical matters and estimated cost at completion. Changes in estimates are applied retrospectively and when adjustments in estimated contract costs are identified, such revisions may result in current period adjustments to earnings applicable to performance in prior periods.
On long-term contracts, the portion of the payments retained by the customer is not considered a significant financing component. At contract inception, the Company also expects that the lag period between the transfer of a promised good or service to a customer and when the customer pays for that good or service will not constitute a significant financing component. Many of the Company’s long-term contracts have milestone payments, which align the payment schedule with the progress towards completion on the performance obligation. On some contracts, the Company may be entitled to receive an advance payment, which is not considered a significant financing component because it is used to facilitate inventory demands at the onset of a contract and to safeguard the Company from the failure of the other party to abide by some or all of their obligations under the contract.
Contract balances result from the timing of revenue recognized, billings and cash collections, and the generation of contract assets and liabilities.
Contract assets represent revenue recognized in excess of amounts invoiced to the customer and the right to payment is not subject to the passage of time. Contract liabilities are presented as deferred revenue on the Company’s consolidated balance sheets and consist of deferred product revenue, billings in excess of revenues, deferred service revenue, and customer advances. Deferred product revenue represents amounts that have been invoiced to customers but are not yet recognizable as revenue because the Company has not satisfied its performance obligations under the contract. Billings in excess of revenues represent milestone billing contracts where the billings of the contract exceed recognized revenues.
Remaining Performance Obligations
The Company includes in its computation of remaining performance obligations customer orders for which it has accepted signed sales orders. The definition of remaining performance obligations excludes those contracts accounted for under the “right to invoice” practical expedient.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
Cash and cash equivalents includes cash on hand, cash balances with banks and similar institutions and all highly liquid investments with an original maturity of three months or less.
Fair Value of Financial Instruments
The Company measures certain financial assets and liabilities, including, but not limited to, contingent consideration, at fair value. ASC 820, Fair Value Measurement and Disclosures (“ASC 820”), specifies a hierarchy of valuation techniques based on whether the inputs to those valuation techniques are observable or unobservable. Observable inputs reflect market data obtained from independent sources, while unobservable inputs reflect the Company’s market assumptions. These two types of inputs have created the following fair-value hierarchy:
Concentration of Credit Risk
Financial instruments which potentially subject the Company to concentrations of credit risk consist primarily of cash and cash equivalents, certificates of deposit, and accounts receivable. The Company places its cash and cash equivalents with financial institutions of high-credit quality. At times, such amounts may exceed federally insured limits. Cash and cash equivalents on deposit or invested with financial and lending institutions was $20.5 million and $22.1 million, as of December 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020, respectively.
The Company provides credit to customers in the normal course of business. The carrying amount of current accounts receivable is stated at cost, net of an allowance for doubtful accounts. The Company performs ongoing credit evaluations of its customers’ financial condition and limits the amount of credit extended when deemed necessary. The Company maintains an allowance for doubtful accounts to provide for the estimated amount of accounts receivable that will not be fully collected. The allowance is based on the assessment of the following factors: customer creditworthiness, historical payment experience, age of outstanding accounts receivable and any applicable collateral.
Inventory is stated at the lower of cost or net realizable value. Cost is calculated on a first-in, first-out (“FIFO”) basis. Inventory may consist of raw materials, work-in-process, and finished goods. Net realizable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business, less the estimated costs of completion and selling expense. Inventory is impaired when it is probable that inventory values exceed their net realizable value. Changes in these estimates are included in cost of sales in the consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive income (loss).
Operating segments are defined as components of an entity for which separate financial information is available and that is regularly reviewed by the Chief Operating Decision Maker (“CODM”) in deciding how to allocate resources and in assessing performance. The Company’s CODM is its Chief Executive Officer. The Company has concluded that it operates in one operating segment and one reportable segment, space infrastructure, as the CODM reviews financial information presented on a consolidated basis for purposes of making operating decisions, allocating resources, and evaluating financial performance.
Goodwill and Intangible Assets
Goodwill is the amount by which the purchase price exceeded the fair value of the net identifiable assets acquired and liabilities assumed in a business combination on the date of acquisition (refer to Note H). Goodwill is assessed for impairment at least annually as of October 1, on a reporting unit basis, or when events and circumstances occur indicating that the recorded goodwill may be impaired. The Company assesses impairment first on a qualitative basis to determine if a quantitative assessment is necessary. In
circumstances where our qualitative analysis indicates that it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit does not exceed its carrying value, the Company would perform a quantitative analysis and the goodwill impairment loss, if any, is measured as the amount by which a reporting unit’s carrying amount exceeds its fair value, not to exceed the carrying amount of goodwill.
Intangible assets include those acquired from the Company’s various business combinations (refer to Note C) as well as licensed software for internal-use. Licensed software is acquired solely to meet the Company’s internal needs which provides the right to take possession of the software and is hosted on the Company’s specific hardware components as well as the capitalization of qualifying costs during the application development stage. Indefinite-lived intangible assets include tradenames and in-process research and development (“IPR&D”), Finite-lived intangible assets include customer relationships, technology trademarks, and internal-use software. Finite-lived intangible assets are reported at cost, net of accumulated amortization, and are either amortized on a straight-line basis over their estimated useful lives or over the period the economic benefits of the intangible assets are consumed.
All indefinite-lived assets are reviewed for impairment annually, and as necessary if indicators of impairment are present.
Property, Plant and Equipment
Property, plant and equipment are the long-lived, physical assets of the Company, acquired for use in the Company’s normal business operations and not intended for resale by the Company. These assets are recorded at cost. Renewals and betterments that increase the useful lives of the assets are capitalized. Repair and maintenance expenditures that increase the efficiency of the assets are expensed as incurred. Assets under capital lease are recorded at the present value of the minimum lease payments required during the lease period. Depreciation is based on the estimated useful lives of the assets using the straight-line method and is included in selling, general and administrative or cost of sales based upon the asset; depreciation and amortization expense includes the amortization of assets under capital leases.
Expected useful lives are reviewed at least annually. Estimated useful lives are as follows:
As assets are retired or sold, the related cost and accumulated depreciation are removed from the accounts and any resulting gain or loss is included in other (income) expense, net in the consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive income (loss).
The Company regularly evaluates its property, plant and equipment and finite-lived intangible assets for impairment when events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset or asset group may not be recoverable, in accordance with ASC 360, Property, Plant, and Equipment (“ASC 360”) and ASC 350, Intangibles—Goodwill and Other (“ASC 350”). If the Company determines that the carrying amount of an asset or asset group is not recoverable based upon the undiscounted expected future cash flows of the asset or asset group, the Company records an impairment loss equal to the excess of carrying amount over the estimated fair value of the asset or asset group.
The Company accounts for income taxes under ASC 740, Income Taxes (“ASC 740”). The Company computes its provision for income taxes using the asset and liability method, under which deferred tax assets and liabilities are calculated based on the basis difference for financial reporting and tax basis of assets and liabilities using enacted tax rates for the year in which the differences are expected to reverse. All deferred income taxes are classified as non-current in the Company’s consolidated balance sheets. The Company records a valuation allowance against net deferred tax assets if, based upon the available evidence, it is more likely than not that some or all of the deferred tax assets will not be realized.
The Company recognizes a tax benefit only if it is more likely than not the tax position will be sustained on examination by the taxing authorities, based on the technical merits of the position. The tax benefits recognized in the financial statements from such positions are then measured based on the largest benefit that has a greater than 50% likelihood of being realized upon settlement. The Company recognizes interest and penalties accrued on any unrecognized tax benefits as a component of income tax expense.
Research and Development Costs
Research and development costs are primarily made up of labor charges, prototype material, and development expenses. Research and development costs are expensed in the period incurred.
All advertising, promotional and marketing costs are expensed when incurred and are included in Selling, general and administrative within the consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive income (loss). The table below presents the advertising cost for the following periods:
The Company’s equity-based compensation plans are classified as equity plans and compensation expense is generally recognized over the vesting period of stock awards. The Company issues stock awards in the form of incentive units, non-qualified stock options and restricted stock units. The fair value of incentive units and stock options are calculated on the grant date using the Black-Scholes Option Pricing Model (“OPM”). Given the absence of adequate historical data, the Company uses the Simplified Method to estimate the term of stock options granted to employees. The fair value of the restricted stock units are calculated based on the closing market price of the Company’s common stock on the grant date.
The vesting of the incentive units is contingent on service-based, performance-based, and market conditions and, as such, the recognition of compensation expense is deferred until it is probable the performance conditions will be satisfied. Once it is probable that the performance conditions will be satisfied, unrecognized compensation expense is recognized based on the portion of the requisite service period that has been rendered. If the requisite period is complete, compensation expense is recognized regardless of market conditions being met and recognizes forfeitures as they occur.
For non-qualified stock options and restricted stock units, the Company recognizes the grant date fair value as compensation expense on a straight-line method over the vesting period (typically three years) and recognizes forfeitures as they occur.
As part of the Merger, public warrants were established as equity and private warrants were established as a liability. Classification of the public warrants as equity instruments and the private warrants as liability instruments is based on management’s analysis of the guidance in ASC 815 Derivatives and Hedging and in a statement issued by the Staff of the SEC regarding the accounting and reporting considerations for warrants issued by special purpose acquisition companies entitled “Staff Statement on Accounting and Reporting Considerations for Warrants Issued by Special Purpose Acquisition Companies.” Management determined that while the public warrants meet the definition of a derivative, they meet the equity scope exception in ASC 815-10-15-74(a) to be classified in stockholders’ equity and are not subject to remeasurement provided that the Company continues to meet the criteria for equity classification. Management considered whether the private warrants display the three characteristics of a derivative under ASC 815, and concluded that the private warrants meet the definition of a derivative. However, the private warrants fail to meet the equity scope exception in ASC 815-10-15-74(a) and thus are classified as a liability measured at fair value, subject to remeasurement at each reporting period. The Company measured the private warrant liability at fair value at the closing of the Merger and then at each reporting period with changes in fair value recognized as other (income) expense, net in the consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive income (loss).
Foreign Currency Translation
The Company’s consolidated financial statements are presented in United States dollars (“USD”), which is the functional currency of the Company. The local currency of our operations in Luxembourg, the euro, is considered to be the functional currency of that operation. Assets and liabilities of the Company's foreign subsidiaries, where the functional currency is the local currency, are translated into USD at exchange rates effective as of the balance sheet date. Revenues and expenses are translated using average exchange rates in effect for the periods presented.
Balance sheet translation adjustments are reported in accumulated other comprehensive income (loss). Realized gains and losses on foreign currency transactions are included in other (income) expense, net on the consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive income (loss).
Emerging Growth Company
Section 102(b)(1) of the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012 (the “JOBS Act”) exempts emerging growth companies from being required to comply with new or revised financial accounting standards until private companies (that is, those that have not had a Securities Act registration statement declared effective or do not have a class of securities registered under the Exchange Act) are required to comply with the new or revised financial accounting standards. The JOBS Act provides that an emerging growth company can elect to opt out of the extended transition period and comply with the requirements that apply to non-emerging growth companies but any such an election to opt out is irrevocable. The Company has elected not to opt out of such extended transition period, which means that when a standard is issued or revised and it has different application dates for public or private companies, the Company, as an emerging growth company, can adopt the new or revised standard at the time private companies adopt the new or revised standard.
This may make comparison of the Company’s financial statements with another public company that is neither an emerging growth company nor an emerging growth company that has opted out of using the extended transition period difficult or impossible because of the potential differences in accounting standards used.
Recently Issued Accounting Pronouncements
In February 2016, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) issued Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) No. 2016-02, Leases (Topic 842), which supersedes the current lease requirements in ASC 840, Leases. ASU 2016-02 requires lessees to recognize a right-of-use asset and related lease liability for all leases, with a limited exception for short-term leases. Leases will be classified as either finance or operating, with the classification affecting the pattern of expense recognition in the consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive income (loss). Currently, leases are classified as either capital or operating, with any capital leases recognized on the consolidated balance sheets. The reporting of lease-related expenses in the consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive income (loss) and consolidated statements of cash flows will be generally consistent with the current guidance.
Effective January 1, 2022, the Company adopted the new lease standard using a modified retrospective transition method with a cumulative effect adjustment in the period of adoption. In accordance with ASC 842, the Company elected the following package of practical expedients: (i) to use hindsight analysis on expired or existing leases as of the effective date; (ii) to not apply this standard to short-term leases (i.e. with a term less than 12 months); and (iii) to not reassess the lease classification for existing or expired contracts. The Company currently estimates that the adoption of this standard will result in the recognition of right of use assets and lease liabilities ranging from approximately $8.0 million to $11.0 million. Adoption of this standard is not expected to have a material impact on the Company’s results of operations or cash flows.
In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-13, Financial Instruments–Credit Losses (Topic 326), an amendment of the FASB ASC. Subsequent to the issuance of ASU 2016-13, there were various updates that amended and clarified the impact of ASU 2016-13. ASU 2016-13 broadens the information that an entity must consider in developing its expected credit loss estimate for assets measured either collectively or individually. The amendments in ASU 2016-13 will require an entity to record an allowance for credit losses for certain financial instruments and financial assets, including accounts receivable, based on expected losses rather than incurred losses. The measurement of expected credit losses is based on relevant information about past events, including historical experience, current conditions, and reasonable and supportable forecasts that affect the collectability of the reported amount. An entity must use judgment in determining the relevant information and estimation methods that are appropriate in its circumstances. The use of forecasted information incorporates more timely information in the estimate of expected credit losses. The new guidance will be effective for the year beginning January 1, 2023. The Company does not expect this guidance to have a material impact on its consolidated financial statements or related disclosures.In October 2021, the FASB issued ASU No. 2021-08, “Business Combinations (Topic 805): Accounting for Contract Assets and Contract Liabilities from Contracts with Customers.” ASU 2021-08 requires the company acquiring contract assets and contract liabilities obtained in a business combination to recognize and measure them in accordance with ASC 606, “Revenue from Contracts with Customers”. Prior to adoption, such amounts were recognized by the acquiring company at fair value on the acquisition date. The amendments in ASU 2021-08 are effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2022, including interim periods within those fiscal years. Early adoption is permitted, including in interim periods, for any financial statements that have not yet been issued. Effective January 1, 2021, the Company elected to early adopt these requirements prospectively which did not have a material impact for business combinations completed in the Successor 2021 Period.
The entire disclosure for all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/disclosureRef